DM & HO
Focusing on women welfare and newborn, Telangana Chief Minister has come out with an innovative scheme – KCR Kit.
The scheme is designed to address complications during the time of pregnancy and aimed at reducing infant mortality rate and encourage institutional deliveries. The KCR Kit consists of 16 essential things needed for a new-born and will be useful for up to three months. The kit comes packed with soaps useful for mother and child, baby oil, baby bed, mosquito net, dresses, sarees, hand bag, towels and napkins, powder, diapers, shampoo and toys for the kid.
The State proposes to compensate pregnant women for the loss of income during the pregnancy period (where women tend to work) and offer ₹4,000 in assistance and another ₹4,000 after discharge from hospital. And at the time of vaccination, ₹4,000 will be provided taking the total assistance to ₹12,000 to women undergoing institutional delivery. And to cap it all, in the case of delivery of a baby girl, the mother gets additional ₹1,000.
The Commissioner of Health and Family Welfare, TS, Hyderabad is directed to the follow the following guidelines for implanting KCR (AmmaVodi) Strictly.
The government of Telangana with the intent of providing compensation of wage loss of Rs. 12,000/- &Rs. 13000/- to pregnant women who are receiving health services from public health institutions in the state at important stages in pre and post natal periods. The financial consideration is to support nutritional needs of pregnant women during her pregnancy and lactation period and ensure increased institutional deliveries and safe motherhood and full Immunization of the child.
Rs. 5000/- For Baby Girl
Rs. 4000/- For Baby Boy
Web Site: kcrkit.telangana.gov.in
102, 104, 108 Vehicle Services:
Amma Vodi Scheme or Pathakam in Telangana: The State government to Launch an exclusive scheme ‘Amma Vodi’ dedicated to pregnant women, which envisages taking complete care of women at every stage of pregnancy. This Pathakam is also included providing free travel for pregnant women from their homes to the care center (Hospitals) and dropping them back.. Apart from this, the ‘Amma vodi’ scheme, conceptualized on the lines of JananiSishuSurakshaKaryakram (JSSK) of National Health Mission (NHM), also entails providing free transport facilities in an ambulance to diagnostic services for regular check-ups and tests. The vehicle will then drop the pregnant women back to their homes after the two-day stay in the hospital.
“The EMRI and State government has completed the process of procurement and providing training to the pilots and emergency medical assistants who will be in charge of the ambulances. The public can avail the new services by dialing 102 emergency telephone number,” According to EMRI officials, efforts are on to provide transport services through special mortuary vans at all the State Government hospitals.
FDHS 104 Services:
This program was designed under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) to provide services in geographically inaccessible areas; providing a package of preventive and clinical services to remote and difficult to reach areas.
The major objective of this program is to provide non-communicable disease screening and treatment to rural populations to strengthen the public health service delivery system in the state.
Under the programme, the MMU vans will visit pre-identified service points in a single day. Each MMU or 104 ambulance will have a driver, lab technician, pharmacist and the local DEO.
In a monthly schedule of 28 days, the 104 services will cover 26 villages and provide diagnostic testing with a focus on diabetes and BP, antenatal checkups, Blood Test, growth monitoring, supply of drugs, Immunization, supply of nutritional supplements and followup of beneficiaries for NCDs.
EMRI 108 Services:
GVK EMRI (Emergency Management and Research Institute) is a pioneer in Emergency Management Services in India. As a not – for – profit professional organization operating in the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) mode, GVK EMRI is the largest professional Emergency Service Provider in India today. April 2005 was the turning point for emergency medical services in India. The organization was incepted with the objective of delivering comprehensive, speedy, reliable and quality Emergency Care Services. This has been done by establishing an Emergency Response System that coordinates every emergency through a toll free number 108/112 which when called in an emergency ensures prompt communication and activation of a response that includes, assessment of the emergency, dispatch of the ambulances, along with a well trained Emergency Medical Technician to render quality pre-hospital care and transport of the patient to the appropriate health care facility.
Today, 108 is synonymous with the best-in-class emergency service and has been acknowledged as the most efficient, speedy, reliable, and caring service provider in its category.
“Provide Emergency Response Services under PPP (Public Private Partnership) framework.”
“Respond to 30 million emergencies and save 1 million lives annually.”
“To deliver services at Global standards through Leadership, Innovation, Technology and Research & Training.”
National Health Programs:
National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP):
The National Leprosy Eradication Programme is a centrally sponsored Health Scheme of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India. The Programme is headed by the Deputy Director of Health Services (Leprosy ) under the administrative control of the Directorate General Health Services Govt. of India. While the NLEP strategies and plans are formulated centrally, the programme is implemented by the States/UTs. The Programme is also supported as Partners by the World Health Organization, The International Federation of Anti-leprosy Associations (ILEP) and few other Non-Govt. Organizations.
Strategy – Leprosy Elimination in India
- Decentralized integrated leprosy services through General Health Care system.
- Early detection & complete treatment of new leprosy cases.
- Carrying out house hold contact survey in detection of Multibacillary (MB) & child cases.
- Early diagnosis & prompt MDT, through routine and special efforts
- Involvement of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) in the detection & complete treatment of Leprosy cases for leprosy work
- Strengthening of Disability Prevention & Medical Rehabilitation (DPMR) services.
- Information, Education & Communication (IEC) activities in the community to improve self reporting to Primary Health Centre (PHC) and reduction of stigma.
- Intensive monitoring and supervision at Primary Health Centre/Community Health Centre.
- Early detection through active surveillance by the trained health workers;
- Regular treatment of cases by providing Multi-Drug Therapy (MDT) at fixed in or centres a nearby village of moderate to low endemic areas/district;
- Intensified health education and public awareness campaigns to remove social stigma attached to the disease.
- Appropriate medical rehabilitation and leprosy ulcer care services.
Source: www.nlep.nic.in & www.nhp.gov.in
National Aids Control Programme
Vision and Value
NACO envisions an India where every person living with HIV has access to quality care and is treated with dignity. Effective prevention, care and support for HIV/AIDS is possible in an environment where human rights are respected and where those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS live a life without stigma and discrimination.
NACO has taken measures to ensure that people living with HIV have equal access to quality health services. By fostering close collaboration with NGOs, women’s self-help groups, faith-based organisations, positive people’s networks and communities, NACO hopes to improve access and accountability of the services. It stands committed to building an enabling environment wherein those infected and affected by HIV play a central role in all responses to the epidemic – at state, district and grassroot level.
NACO is thus committed to contain the spread of HIV in India by building an all-encompassing response reaching out to diverse populations. We endeavour to provide people with accurate, complete and consistent information about HIV, promote use of condoms for protection, and emphasise treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. NACO works to motivate men and women for a responsible sexual behaviour.
NACO believes that people need to be aware, motivated, equipped and empowered with knowledge so that they can protect themselves from the impact of HIV. We confront a stark realty – HIV can happen to any of us. Our hope is that anyone can be saved from the infection with appropriate information on prevention. NACO is built on a foundation of care and support, and is committed to consistently fabricate strategic responses for combating HIV/AIDS situation in India.
- Building an integrated response by reaching out to diverse populations.
- A National AIDS Control Programme that is firmly rooted in evidence-based planning.
- Achievement of development objective
- Regular dissemination of transparent estimates on the spread and prevalence of HIV/AIDS
- Building an India where every person is safe from HIV/AIDS
- Building partnerships
- An India where every person has accurate knowledge about HIV and contributes towards eradicating stigma and discrimination
- An India where every pregnant woman living with HIV has the choice to bring an HIV free baby into the world
- An India where every person has access to Integrated Counselling & Testing Centres (ICTCs)
- An India where every person living with HIV is treated with dignity and has access to quality care
- An India where every person will eventually live a healthy and safe life, supported by technological advances
- An India where every person who is highly vulnerable to HIV is heard and reached out to
Integrated Disease Control Programme (IDSP)
To strengthen the disease surveillance in the country by establishing a decentralized State based surveillance system for epidemic prone diseases to detect the early warning signals, so that timely and effective public health actions can be initiated in response to health challenges in the country at the Districts, State and National level.
- Integration and decentralization of surveillance activities through establishment of surveillance units at Centre, State and District level.
- Human Resource Development – Training of State Surveillance Officers, District Surveillance Officers, Rapid Response Team and other Medical and Paramedical staff on principles of disease surveillance.
- Information Communication Technology – for collection, collation, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data.
- Strengthening of public health laboratories.
Integrated Health Information Platform
The Integrated Health Information Platform (IHIP) is a web-enabled near-real-time electronic information system that is embedded with all applicable Government of India’s e-Governance standards, Information Technology (IT), data & meta data standards to provide state-of-the-art single operating picture with geospatial information for managing disease outbreaks and related resources.
Key features of Integrated Health Information Platform (IHIP)
- Real time data reporting (along through mobile application); accessible at all levels (from villages, states and central level)
- Advanced data modelling & analytical tools
- GIS enabled Graphical representation of data into integrated dashboard
- Role & hierarchy-based feedback & alert mechanisms
- Geo-tagging of reporting health facilities
- Scope for data integration with other health programs
National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP)
SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA
- Typically, malaria produces fever, headache, vomiting and other flu-like symptoms.
- The parasite infects and destroys red blood cells resulting in easy fatigue-ability due to anemia, fits/convulsions and loss of consciousness.
- Parasites are carried by blood to the brain (cerebral malaria) and to other vital organs.
- Malaria in pregnancy poses a substantial risk to the mother, the fetus and the newborn infant.
- Pregnant women are less capable of coping with and clearing malaria infections, adversely affecting the unborn fetus.
MALARIA CONTROL STRATEGIES
1. Early case Detection and Prompt Treatment (EDPT)
- EDPT is the main strategy of malaria control – radical treatment is necessary for all the cases of malaria to prevent transmission of malaria.
- Chloroquine is the main anti-malaria drug for uncomplicated malaria.
- Drug Distribution Centres (DDCs) and Fever Treatment Depots (FTDs) have been established in the rural areas for providing easy access to anti-malarial drugs to the community.
- Alternative drugs for chloroquine resistant malaria are recommended as per the drug policy of malaria.
(i) Chemical Control
- Use of Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) with insecticides recommended under the programnme
- Use of chemical larvicides like Abate in potable water
- Aerosol space spray during day time
- Malathion fogging during outbreaks
(ii) Biological Control
- Use of larvivorous fish in ornamental tanks, fountains etc.
- Use of biocides.
(iii) Personal Prophylatic Measures that individuals/communities can take up
- Use of mosquito repellent creams, liquids, coils, mats etc.
- Screening of the houses with wire mesh
- Use of bednets treated with insecticide
- Wearing clothes that cover maximum surface area of the body
3. Community Participation
- Sensitizing and involving the community for detection of Anopheles breeding places and their elimination
- NGO schemes involving them in programme strategies
- Collaboration with CII/ASSOCHAM/FICCI
4. Environmental Management & Source Reduction Methods
- Source reduction i.e. filling of the breeding places
- Proper covering of stored water
- Channelization of breeding source
5. Monitoring and Evaluation of the programme
- Monthly Computerized Management Information System(CMIS)
- Field visits by state by State National Programme Officers
- Field visits by Malaria Research Centres and other ICMR Institutes
- Feedback to states on field observations for correction actions.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF DENGUE FEVER
- Abrupt onset of high fever
- Severe frontal headache
- Pain behind the eyes which worsens with eye movement
- Muscle and joint pains
- Loss of sense of taste and appetite
- Measles-like rash over chest and upper limbs
- Nausea and vomiting
DO’S AND DON’TS
- Remove water from coolers and other small containers at least once in a week
- Use aerosol during day time to prevent the bites of mosquitoes
- Do not wear clothes that expose arms and legs
- Children should not be allowed to play in shorts and half sleeved clothes
- Use mosquito nets or mosquito repellents while sleeping during day time.
Non Communicable Diseases
School Health Programme (RBSK):
The Job Aids presented here is a complementary and supportive set of tool. The Participants Manual and Job aids under Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) have been developed as reference about the selected health conditions and explaining screening by Look, Ask and Perform especially for the Mobile Health Teams.
The Job aids consisting of pictorials, guiding tools, reference charts, list of Equipment for Mobile Health Team for Screening, Microplanning and Register formats, Screening tool cum Referral cards, will add value to the screening process and will help standardize screening methodology.
The Job aids along with Participants’ manual is to build capacity of RBSK Mobile Health teams. The job aids are to be carried to the field by each member of the Mobile Health Team and use it as handy reference. States/UTs are to ensure adequate priority to effectively address 4 Ds’ – Defects at Birth, Diseases, Deficiencies, Developmental delays including disabilities. National RBSK Team.
Universal Immunization Programme
Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as ‘Expanded Programme of Immunization’ (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. In 1985, the programme was modified as ‘Universal Immunization Programme’ (UIP) to be implemented in phased manner to cover all districts in the country by 1989-90 with the one of largest health programme in the world.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India provides several vaccines to infants, children and pregnant women through the Universal Immunisation Programme.
Immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of a vaccine. Vaccines are substances that stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent infection or disease.
Vaccines provided under UIP:
- About-BCG stands for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine. It is given to infants to protect them from tubercular meningitis and disseminated TB.
- When to give – BCG vaccine is given at birth or as early as possible till 1 year of age.
- Route and site- BCG is given as intradermal injection in left upper arm.
- About-OPV stands for Oral Polio Vaccine. It protects children from poliomylitis.
- When to give- OPV is given at birth called zero dose and three doses are given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks. A booster dose is given at 16-24 months of age.
- Route and site – OPV is given orally in the form of two drops.
Hepatitis B vaccine
- About – Hepatitis B vaccine protects from Hepatitis B virus infection.
- When to give- Hepatitis B vaccine is given at birth or as early as possible within 24 hours. Subsequently 3 dose are given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks in combination with DPT and Hib in the form of pentavalent vaccine.
- Route and site- Intramuscular injection is given at anterolateral side of mid thigh
- About-Pentavalent vaccine is a combined vaccine to protect children from five diseases Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertusis, Haemophilis influenza type b infection and Hepatitis B.
- When to give – Three doses are given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age (can be given till one year of age).
- Route and site-Pentavalent vaccine is given intramuscularly on anterolateral side of mid thigh
- About -RVV stands for Rotavirus vaccine. It gives protection to infants and children against rotavirus diarrhoea. It is given in select states.
- When to give – Three doses of vaccine are given at 6, 10, 14 weeks of age.
- Route and site-5 drops of vaccine are given orally.
- About- PCV stands for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine. It protects infants and young children against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is given in select states.
- When to give – The vaccine is given as two primary doses at 6 & 14 weeks of age followed by a booster dose at 9 months of age
- Route and site- PCV is given as intramuscular (IM) injection in outer right upper thigh. It should be noted that pentavalent vaccine and PCV are given as two separate injections into opposite thighs.
- About– fIPV stands for Fractional Inactivated Poliomylitis Vaccine. It is used to boost the protection against poliomylitis.
- When to give- Two fractional doses of IVP are given intradermally at 6 and 14 weeks of age.
- Route and site- It is given as intradermal injection at right upper arm.
Measles/ MR vaccine
- About-Measles vaccine is used to protect children from measles. In few states Measles and Rubella a combined vaccine is given to protect from Measles and Rubella infection.
- When to given- First dose of Measles or MR vaccine is given at 9 completed months to 12 months (vaccine can be given up to 5 years if not given at 9-12 months age) and second dose is given at 16-24 months.
- Route and site – Measles Vaccine is given as subcutaneous injection in right upper arm.
- About- JE stands for Japanese encephalitis vaccine. It gives protection against Japanese Encephalitis disease. JE vaccine is given in select districts endemic for JE.
- When to given- JE vaccine is given in two doses first dose is given at 9 completed months-12 months of age and second dose at 16-24 months of age.
- Route and site- It is given as subcutaneous injection.
- About-DPT is a combined vaccine; it protects children from Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis.
- When to give -DPT vaccine is given at 16-24 months of age is called as DPT first booster and DPT 2nd booster is given at 5-6 years of age.
- Route and site- DPT first booster is given as intramuscular injection in antero-lateral side of mid thigh in left leg. DPT second booster is given as intramuscular injection in left upper arm.
- About- Tetanus toxoid vaccine is used to provide protection against tetanus.
- When to give– Tetanus toxoid vaccine is given at 10 years and 15 years of age when previous injections of pentavalent vaccine and DPT vaccine are given at scheduled age.
- Pregnant women-TT-1 is given early in pregnancy; and TT-2 is given 4 weeks after TT-1.TT booster is given when two doses of TT are given in a pregnancy in last three years.
- Route and site– TT is given as Intramuscular injection in upper arm.
National Programme on Prevention and Control of Diabetes CVD and Stroke
States have already initiated some of the activities for prevention and control of non communicable diseases (NCDs) especially cancer, diabetes, CVDs and stroke. The Central Govt. proposes to supplement their efforts by providing technical and financial support through National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, CVD and Stroke( NPCDCS).
- Prevent and control common NCDs through behavior and lifestyle changes,
- Provide early diagnosis and management of common NCDs,
- Build capacity at various levels of health care for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of common NCDs,
- Train human resource within the public health setup viz doctors, paramedics and nursing staff to cope with the increasing burden of NCDs
- Establish and develop capacity for palliative and rehabilitative care.
National Mental Health Programme
The Mental Health Care Act 2017 was passed on 7 April 2017 and came into force from July 7, 2018.The law was described in its opening paragraph as “An Act to provide for mental healthcare and services for persons with mental illness and to protect, promote and fulfill the rights of such persons during delivery of mental healthcare and services and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. “This Act superseded the previously existing the Mental Health Act, 1987 that was passed on 22 May 1987.
3 main components of NMHP –
- Treatment of Mentally ill
- Prevention and promotion of positive mental health.
- To ensure the availability and accessibility of minimum mental healthcare for all in the foreseeable future;
- To encourage the application of mental health knowledge in general healthcare and in social development;
- To promote community participation in the mental health service development; and
- To enhance human resource in mental health subspecialties.
- Integration mental health with primary health care through the NMHP
- Provision of tertiary care institutions for treatment of mental disorders
- Eradicating stigmatization of mentally ill patients and protecting their rights through regulatory institutions like the Central Mental Health Authority, and State Mental health Authority.
District Mental Health Program:
Envisages provision of basic mental health care services at the community level.
- To provide sustainable basic mental health services to the community and to integrate these services with other health services
- Early detection and treatment of patients within the community itself
- To reduce the stigma of mental illness through public awareness.
- To treat and rehabilitate mental patients within the community.
National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme:
Iodine is required for the synthesis of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) and essential for the normal growth and development and well being of all humans. It is a micronutrient and normally required around 100-150 microgram for normal growth and development. Deficiency of iodine may cause following disorders:
- Subnormal intelligence
- Neuromuscular weakness
- Endemic cretinism
- Still birth
- Defect in vision, hearing, and speech
- Intrauterine death
- Mental retardation
In 1992, the National Goiter Control Programme (NGCP) was renamed as National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme (NIDDCP).
The important objectives and components of National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) are as follows:-
- Surveys to assess the magnitude of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders.
- Supply of iodated salt in place of common salt.
- Resurvey after every 5 years to assess the extent of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and the impact of lodated salt.
- Laboratory monitoring of iodated salt and urinary iodine excretion.
- Health education and Publicity.
National Tobacco Control Programme
Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, lung diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. India is the 2nd largest producer and consumer of tobacco and a variety of forms of tobacco use is unique to India. Apart from the smoked forms that include cigarettes, bidis and cigars, a plethora of smokeless forms of consumption exist in the country. The Government of India has enacted the national tobacco-control legislation namely, “The Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003” in May, 2003. India also ratified the WHO-Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC) in February 2004. Further, in order to facilitate the effective implementation of the Tobacco Control Law, to bring about greater awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco as well as to fulfill the obligations under the WHO-FCTC, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India launched the National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP) in 2007- 08 in 42 districts of 21 States/Union Territories of the country.
- To bring about greater awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco use and Tobacco Control Laws.
- To facilitate effective implementation of the Tobacco Control Laws.
- The objective of this programme is to control tobacco consumption and minimize the deaths caused by it.
The various activities planned to control tobacco use are as follows:
- Training and Capacity Building
- IEC activity
- Monitoring Tobacco Control Laws and Reporting
- Survey and Surveillance
National Programme for Health Care of Elderly
With a comparatively young population, India is still poised to become home to the second largest number of older persons in the world. Projection studies indicate that the number of 60+ in India will increase from 100 million in 2013 and to 198 million by 2030. The special features of the elderly population in India are: –
- a majority (80%) of them resides in the rural areas, thus making service delivery a challenge,
- majority of the elderly population are Female (51% of the elderly population would be women by the year 2016),
- increase in the number of the older-old population that is above 80 years, and
- a large percentage (30%) of the elderly are below poverty line
Non-communicable diseases requiring large quantum of health and social care are extremely common in old age, irrespective of socio-economic status. Disabilities resulting from these non-communicable diseases are very frequent which affect functionality compromising the ability to pursue the activities of daily living.
To overcome this out of bound expenses for elderly whose income decreases post retirement and dependent elderly women, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched The National Programme for Health Care for the Elderly (NPHCE).
The Vision of the NPHCE is: –
- To provide accessible, affordable, and high-quality long-term, comprehensive and dedicated care services to an Ageing population;
- Creating a new “architecture” for Ageing;
- To build a framework to create an enabling environment for “a Society for all Ages”.
- To promote the concept of Active and Healthy Ageing;
Supplementary Strategies include:
- Promotion of public private partnerships in Geriatric Health Care.
- Mainstreaming AYUSH – revitalizing local health traditions, and convergence with programmes of Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in the field of geriatrics.
- Reorienting medical education to support geriatric issues.